July 7, 2021

【升糖指數】糖尿病人必須上的一課

⭐低GI食物有助保持血糖穩定
⭐同時也要注意營養均衡
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認識低GI食物
唐太:「剛患上糖尿病,醫生說要注意食物的升糖指數,是否要吃無糖的食物?」

CheckCheckCin:「升糖指數」(Glycemic Index,簡稱GI)是量度各類含碳水化合物(醣質)食物在進食後對血糖影響程度的數值,食物中的碳水化合物在消化道分解後,會轉化成葡萄糖進入血液,血糖會因而上升,各種食物的轉化速度不一樣,高GI的食物較容易消化而轉化成葡萄糖,一般都是纖維含量低、精緻度高、較為稀爛的食物,例如白飯、粥、麵包、蛋糕、南瓜、薯蓉、果汁、砂糖等,故進食後容易出現高血糖情況;而精緻度低、富含膳食纖維、蛋白質的食物大多屬於低GI,例如糙米、燕麥、全麥麵包、意粉、蘋果、粟米、白扁豆、紅腰豆、牛奶、乳酪等,延長飽足感時間,有助控制血糖。
從中醫角度來看,低GI食物多為粗糧,故建議平日多食用,包括全穀類食品,例如燕麥、藜麥、蕎麥、小米、粟米、五穀米、全麥麵粉等;要注意烹調時間越長GI值亦越高,食物越軟爛,消化時間就越短,血糖會升得較快。

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Get to know low GI foods
“I was recently diagnosed with diabetes, and the doctor asked me to take note of the Glycemic Index of the foods I eat. Does that mean I have to start taking sugar-free foods?”

CheckCheckCin: Glycemic Index (GI) is used to measure the effects of carbohydrates (sugars and starches) on blood sugar levels. Once the carbohydrates enter the digestive tract, they will be broken down into glucose that can enter the bloodstream, causing an increase in the blood sugar levels.

Different foods will convert to glucose at different rates. Foods with higher GI can be digested and turned into glucose more easily. They are normally lower in fiber, high in refined carbs, and are easily mashed. These include rice, porridge, bread, cake, pumpkin, mashed potato, fruit juice, and sugar. They might cause blood sugar levels to spike.

On the contrary, foods with a lower GI have lower refined carbs and rich in fiber and protein. Some examples are brown rice, oats, whole wheat bread, spaghetti, apple, corn, white lentils, kidney bean, milk, and cheese. These foods can keep us full for a longer period. Hence, they are effective in controlling our blood sugar levels.

From the perspective of Chinese Medicine, foods with lower GI are generally coarse grains, and Chinese medicine practitioner recommend consuming them on a regular basis. These includes all types of whole grains such as oat, quinoa, buckwheat, millet, corn, grain rice, and whole-wheat flour.

Do note that the longer you cook these foods, the higher the GI readings you will get, as they become mashed. This will also shorten the digestion time, causing the blood sugar levels to rise.

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